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Urine testing

Evaluation of glycosuria, ketonuria, and monitoring by urine tests

Urine only tests positive for glucose if the blood glucose concentration remains above the renal threshold for a substantial period of time. This occurs when glycemia reaches 180–220 mg/dL (10–12.2 mmol/L) in the dog.

If used in conjunction with punctual blood samples and evaluation of clinical signs, urine sampling can be a valuable monitoring tool. However, when adjustment of insulin dose is necessary, the preferred method of monitoring is by evaluation of glycemia by performing a glucose curve. Urine monitoring is also a quick and easy method of detecting ketones (ketonuria) and hence a potential emergency—see diabetic ketoacidosis.

Two different protocols can be used by the pet owner to monitor the urine:

1. Have pet owner test urine 3 times a day: before the first meal (test 1), before the second meal (test 2), and late in the evening (test 3).

Refer to the following table:

TEST 1
TEST 2
TEST 3
Action recommended
Trace
None
+
None
Trace
Trace
Duration of Vetsulin activity may be a little too short. Perform glucose curve.
+
+
Potential Somogyi effect. Perform glucose curve.
+
+
+
Dose potentially too low. Perform glucose curve.
Dose potentially too high. Perform glucose curve.

2. Ask the pet owner to closely monitor a 24-hour period by collecting as many urine samples as possible. A persistent glycosuria will indicate the necessity of a complete re-evaluation and glucose curve.